Aboriginal settlers arrived on the continent from Southeast Asia about
40,000 years before the first Europeans began exploration in the 17th
century. No formal territorial claims were made until 1770, when Capt. James
Cook took possession in the name of Great Britain. Six colonies were created
in the late 18th and 19th centuries; they federated and became the
Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.
The new country took advantage of its natural resources to rapidly develop its agricultural and manufacturing industries and to make a major contribution to the British effort in World Wars I and II.
In recent decades, Australia has transformed itself into an internationally competitive, advanced market economy. It boasted one of the OECD's fastest growing economies during the 1990's, a performance due in large part to economic reforms adopted in the 1980's.
Long-term concerns include pollution, particularly depletion of the ozone layer, and management and conservation of coastal areas, especially the Great Barrier Reef.
Central Coast, Australia
Sunshine Coast, Australia
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